What I know and strongly suspect is true
- Was born in NC 
- Lived in a part of Bedford County in 1820 and 1830 that became a part of Marshall County 
- Was a known relative of William H Rosson 
- Children: John Rosson (1812 - 1897), Samuel M Rosson (17 Dec 1814 - 18 Aug 1885), Osman Rosson (abt 1814 - ?), William Henry Harrison Rosson (2 Feb 1817 - 21 Jun 1901), Andrew Rosson (1820-1880), Mary B Rosson (abt 1825 - 1850-60?, m. George E. Calhoun), and Elizabeth M Rosson (abt 1829 - ?, m. William S Wallace) 
- Wife at death: Rebecca D 
- Died between 1 Sept 1838 and 3 Oct 1838 
- Served as acting justice of the peace for Bedford County on 14 Jan 1833 
- Was literate 
Things I don't know and what I can't confirm
- Was born in Chatham Co, NC
- Is the same Joseph Rosson present in 1810 census for Randolph Co, NC
- Middle name is Osborn (I refer to him as such despite not being able to confirm it just to help keep the Joseph Rossons straight)
- Was either a brother or uncle of William H Rosson (i.e. son or brother of John Cummins Rosson Jr)
- Rebecca D's maiden name was Patterson
- Rebecca D was/was not his only wife. She appears to be much younger than him, so I'm guessing she was not.
- When Rebecca D and Jospeh married.
- Was/was not the father of Joseph Alexander Rosson who appears in Oct 1839 in the guardianship of Andrew Laird
Notes & Sources:
 Goodspeed - Biographical sketch of William Rosson, his grandson.
 1820-1830 censuses, Land Deed Genealogy of Bedford County, Land Deed Genealogy of Marshall County, Early History & Genealogy of Bedford Co, TN (shows was in James Patterson's tax district, all of which became a part of Marshall County.)
 Land Deed Genealogy of Marshall County: Wm H witnessed a land sale between Osman, on the one part, and Samuel and Andrew Rosson, on the other. You generally see the same groups of people acting as witnesses. Joseph's children generally witnessed for each other. In this case, instead of getting Marcellus Cook or Michael Robinson to witness, two characters Andrew and Osman witnessed for, or even justice of the peace Andrew Laird, who did a lot of witnessing, they chose William. This is highly suggestive to me that he was known to them as a relative.
 Joseph Rosson's will.
 Joseph Rosson's will written 1 Sept 1838 (in will), probated 3 Oct 1838 (Marshall County Court Minutes).
 Hugh McCrary's Revolutionary War pension application (N.B. Jospeh is mentioned immediately after future president Col James K Polk but before James Patterson in the application when listing people who can vouch for him, suggesting to me he was a person of some standing in Bedford County. James Patterson was certainly a person of standing in the community since his household was where election ballots were cast in district 13 of Bedford County.)
 Signed his own name on Hugh McCrary's Revolutionary War pension application. His will appears to have been written by the court clerk.